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What Bubbles In Glass Of Beer?

When you pour a glass of beer, a frothy cascade of fizz rises to the top; as more and more tiny bubbles coalesce, they form a nose-tickling layer of foam.

At first, that frothy stream of carbonation seems endless. But just how many bubbles can emerge from a glass of beer before it goes flat?

Gérard Liger-Belair, a professor of chemical physics at the University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne in France, had previously explored this effervescent subject in Champagne, calculating that one flute produces about 1 million bubbles.

Recently, Liger-Belair peered into the depths of beer glasses and found that they produce twice as many bubbles as Champagne — with up to 2 million bubbles popping in a half-pint glass, according to a new study.

Beer is typically made of four ingredients — malted cereal grains, hops, yeast and water — which are then fermented. This process breaks down carbohydrates to produce alcohol, sugars and carbon dioxide (CO2).

When beer is bottled or canned, additional CO2 is added, creating pressure in the container. Once the seal on a can or bottle is broken, the liquid becomes supersaturated with CO2, which is then released as tiny bubbles.

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Kaleidoscope

Of Ladies And Foundation Makeup

Foundation is a form of face makeup. This product is used all over your face to create an even base—or foundation—for the rest of your makeup. Is foundation important for makeup? Yes! Just take a look at its name.

This product is meant to act as the groundwork for your makeup look. The right formula can help cover blemishes, correct your skin tone, blur imperfections, and create an overall smooth and even canvas. That said, there are many different types of foundation makeup available.

Foundation makeup is far from a one-size-fits-all deal. There are formulas available based on your preferred consistency, the amount of coverage you want, and the finish you like. Here’s a run-down.

When you go down the makeup aisle, there are five main foundation formulas you’ll likely notice. Here’s what to know.

1. Liquid foundation. One of the most popular options for foundation, liquid foundation, is just what it sounds like—foundation that has a liquid formula.

2. Cream foundation. This type of foundation has a creamier, thicker consistency. It’s also usually a great option for those with dry skin. 

3. Powder foundation. If you have oily skin, you may find yourself turning to a powder formula. While you can layer on the powder formula, they generally offer lighter coverage.

4. Serum foundation. A trendy foundation type, serum foundation, is a variation of your standard liquid foundation. Its formula contains a serum, making it a skin care and makeup hybrid.

5. Water-based foundation. Those with acne-prone skin may find themselves turning to a water-based foundation. Another liquid foundation option, this foundation includes water as its main ingredient and is generally free of oils. 

After choosing a foundation formula, you’ll also want to be knowledgeable about different coverage options.

1. Sheer coverage. A foundation with light or sheer coverage is ideal for someone who wants to improve their skin tone a bit but isn’t looking for a product that will cover or hide imperfections.

2. Medium coverage. A medium-coverage foundation will conceal some imperfections while still looking like skin.

3. Full coverage. A full-coverage foundation will hide all imperfections and blemishes, leaving you with a flawless canvas. The right full-coverage formula can even hide tattoos.

4. Buildable coverage. A foundation with buildable coverage can be built—aka layered—to your desired level of coverage. This is great if there are areas of your skin where you would like more coverage than others.

3 TYPES OF FOUNDATION FINISHES

1. Natural finish. This finish is what most closely resembles your skin, hence its name. It’s neither matte nor dewy.

2. Matte finish. This finish is shine-free, making it a popular option for those with oily skin.

3. Dewy finish. This finish is radiant and glowing, which is why those with dry skin tend to gravitate toward it.

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Kaleidoscope

Revealed Nigerian Children Infected With HIV

The United Nations has disclosed that no fewer than 22,000 Nigerian children get infected with HIV annually.

The UN system made the statement on Tuesday, at the National dialogue meeting for the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in Nigeria otherwise known as vertical transmission of HIV.

Speaking on behalf of the UN was Mr Claes Johansson, Chief of management for results, United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), who described the meeting as a crucial one for Nigeria to continue onward dialogue on what can be done and the ways of eliminating the vertical transmission of HIV.

”We are working within a frame work to map out a strategy that we will work with for the next five years along with Nigeria.

”Let us know your priorities, so that we can assist and help map out strong, sustainable ways to eliminating vertical transmission,” Johansson said.

Emphasising the need for a better strategy, the NACA Director General, Dr Gambo Aliyu, said that it was more of the strategy not working rather than the PMTCT.

He explained that in 2016, there were about 13,000 infected pregnant mothers that were not getting treatment, which had risen to 421,000 as at 2019.

Aliyu attributed the rise to the fact that many pregnant women were not visiting health facilities, adding that as part of the strategies to be discussed at the dialogue was how to get the facilities to the women, if they were not willing to come to the facilities.

The United Nations has disclosed that no fewer than 22,000 Nigerian children get infected with HIV annually.

The UN system made the statement on Tuesday, at the National dialogue meeting for the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in Nigeria otherwise known as vertical transmission of HIV.

Speaking on behalf of the UN was Mr Claes Johansson, Chief of management for results, United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), who described the meeting as a crucial one for Nigeria to continue onward dialogue on what can be done and the ways of eliminating the vertical transmission of HIV.

”We are working within a frame work to map out a strategy that we will work with for the next five years along with Nigeria.

”Let us know your priorities, so that we can assist and help map out strong, sustainable ways to eliminating vertical transmission,” Johansson said.

Emphasising the need for a better strategy, the NACA Director General, Dr Gambo Aliyu, said that it was more of the strategy not working rather than the PMTCT.

He explained that in 2016, there were about 13,000 infected pregnant mothers that were not getting treatment, which had risen to 421,000 as at 2019.

Aliyu attributed the rise to the fact that many pregnant women were not visiting health facilities, adding that as part of the strategies to be discussed at the dialogue was how to get the facilities to the women, if they were not willing to come to the facilities.

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Kaleidoscope

Tourists Queue For Trips To Space

Americans are taking tourism high above the ordinary as many are queueing up for the journey to space, sixty years after Alan Shepard became the first American in space, and the second person in space after the Soviet Union launched cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin three weeks earlier.

Jeff Bezos’ Blue Origin used Wednesday’s anniversary to kick off an auction for a seat on the company’s first crew spaceflight — a short Shepard-like hop launched by a rocket named New Shepard. The Texas liftoff is targeted for July 20, the date of the Apollo 11 moon landing.

Richard Branson’s Virgin Galactic aims to kick off tourist flights next year, just as soon as he straps into his space-skimming, plane-launched rocketship for a test run from the New Mexico base.

And Elon Musk’s SpaceX will launch a billionaire and his sweepstakes winners in September. That will be followed by a flight by three businessmen to the International Space Station in January.

“We’ve always enjoyed this incredible thing called space, but we always want more people to be able to experience it as well,” NASA astronaut Shane Kimbrough said from the space station Wednesday. “So I think this is a great step in the right direction.”

Since Gagarin and Shepard’s pioneering flights, 579 people have rocketed into space or reached its fringes, according to NASA.  

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Kaleidoscope

How To Make A Perfect Cup Of Tea

Professor Alan Mackie has put an end to the age-old debate of the ‘correct’ way to brew a cuppa in order to get the most flavour – but it’s a little controversial.

Although the amount of milk and sugar varies from person to person, we all tend to follow the same method – mug, teabag, then boiling water, followed by milk.

But apparently, we’ve been doing it wrong. An  expert says that pouring milk in first on top of the teabag is the secret to a perfect brew – especially if you have hard water.

Research conducted by INTU, a manufacturer of boiling water taps and Professor Alan Mackie, the head of Leeds University’s School Of Food Science & Nutrition, found that the minerals in hard water can stop flavour compounds from forming properly.

But pouring the milk in first, allows its proteins to lower the mineral content of the water and lock in the flavour.

The hardness of water, according to Healthline, is determined by the amount of calcium and magnesium it contains – higher levels of these and other minerals make water hard.

Professor Mackie explains: “Flavour by and large is produced by the different compounds in tea including tannins in particular.

“The more minerals present in the water the more difficult it is for these compounds to develop the flavour – resulting in the dull cuppas you get in hard water areas.

“Making tea the traditional way – steeping a bag in hot water before removing it and adding milk – results in the tannins turning into solids before they can develop the flavour properly.

“But, if the milk is added at the start of the steeping process then its proteins can bind to the tannins and other minerals in the water – preventing them from turning solid – which in turn gives you a far superior flavour.”

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Kaleidoscope

Chocolate Intact After 121 Years

A 121-year-old chocolate bar, from a batch commissioned by Queen Victoria for British troops fighting in South Africa, has been found in its original tin in the attic of an English manor.

The chocolate belonged to an English aristocrat who fought in the Second Boer War, Sir Henry Edward Paston-Bedingfield, and was found in his helmet case at his family’s ancestral home, 500-year-old Oxburgh Hall in Norfolk, eastern England.

“Although …you wouldn’t want it as your Easter treat, it is still complete and a remarkable find,” said Anna Forrest, Cultural Heritage Curator at the National Trust, a heritage charity that manages Oxburgh Hall.

The tin lid has a message in Victoria’s handwriting that says “I wish you a happy New Year” and the inscription “South Africa 1900”, as well as a portrait of the queen.

The National Trust said it believed Henry had kept the helmet and the chocolate together as mementoes of his participation in the war. The items were discovered among the belongings of his daughter Frances Greathead following her death aged 100 in 2020.

The Second Boer War, from 1899 and 1902, pitted British troops against the forces of two independent South African states run by the Boers, Afrikaans-speaking farmers, where huge gold and diamond deposits had been found.

Victoria commissioned 100,000 half-pound (226-gramme) bars to raise morale among the troops there.

Britain’s three main chocolate manufacturers at the time, Cadbury, Fry and Rowntree, were run by Quakers who opposed the war, so they refused to accept payment for the order and packaged the chocolate in unbranded tins.

However, the queen insisted the British soldiers should know that their treats had come from home, and the manufacturers relented and branded some of the chocolates, though not the tins.

While some tins survive, the National Trust said, it is extremely rare to trace one to its original owner, and rarer still to find the chocolate, as most recipients ate theirs.

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Queen Elizabeth’s Husband For Burial, Saturday

The Duke of Edinburgh will be buried on Saturday, April 17 at Windsor Castle.

Prince Philip, husband of Queen Elizabeth II and  the Duke of Edinburgh passed on peacefully at Windsor Castle less than three months to his 100th birthday  and 73 years in marriage to the queen. 

The tragic news is a huge blow to the Queen, as the Duke is believed to be the backbone of the Royal Family.Just after midday, the Union Flag was lowered to half-mast outside Buckingham Palace and on public buildings across the UK as the world mourns his death.

Tributes have poured in from around the world for the hardest-working member of the Royal Family after seven decades of Royal service. Buckingham Palace said it will now “join with people around the world in mourning his loss”.

A statement from the Palace said: “It is with deep sorrow that Her Majesty The Queen has announced the death of her beloved husband, His Royal Highness The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.

“His Royal Highness passed away peacefully this morning at Windsor Castle. Further announcements will made in due course. The Royal Family join with people around the world in mourning his loss.”

Announcing the news, the official Royal Family website was replaced with a single page and heartfelt tribute to the Duke.

Prime Minister Boris Johnson paid tribute and said “he helped to steer the Royal Family and the monarchy so that it remains an institution indisputably vital to the balance and happiness of our national life.”

Speaking from a podium in Downing Street, Mr Johnson said: “He was an environmentalist, and a champion of the natural world long before it was fashionable.

“With his Duke of Edinburgh awards scheme he shaped and inspired the lives of countless young people and at literally tens of thousands of events he fostered their hopes and encouraged their ambitions.

“We remember the duke for all of this and above all for his steadfast support for Her Majesty the Queen.Not just as her consort, by her side every day of her reign, but as her husband, her ‘strength and stay’, of more than 70 years.

“And it is to Her Majesty, and her family, that our nation’s thoughts must turn today.Because they have lost not just a much-loved and highly respected public figure, but a devoted husband and a proud and loving father, grandfather and, in recent years, great-grandfather.” 

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Buhari Greets Jonathan On 63rd Birthday

The President, Major General Muhammadu Buhari (retd.), last Thursday, congratulated former President Goodluck Jonathan, on his 63rd birthday.

His congratulatory message was contained in a statement by his Special Adviser on Media and Publicity, Femi Adesina, titled ‘President Buhari greets former President Goodluck Jonathan on 63rd birthday’.

The statement read, “On behalf of the Federal Government and Nigerians in general, President Muhammadu Buhari warmly felicitates with former President Goodluck “Jonathan on his 63rd birthday, November 20, 2020, congratulating him for a life of service that has brought honour and goodwill to the country.

“The President notes, with appreciation, the peculiar and remarkable climb of the former president on Nigeria’s political ladder, and dedication that has kept him working most recently as ECOWAS envoy to bring peace to the Republic of Mali.

“As the former Nigerian President turns 63, President Buhari prays that the Almighty God will grant Dr Jonathan longer life, good health and more wisdom to keep serving the nation and humanity.

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Artificial Heart Gets Boost With Rocket Tech

A new artificial heart design powered by Chinese rocket technology is being tried on patients with weak hearts.

The trials were launched on September 13 by clinicians at the TEDA International Cardiovascular Hospital in North China’s Tianjin.

After being implanted into a 63-year-old male patient to replace his failed heart, the device has functioned as a pump to deliver blood to the whole body, significantly alleviating the symptoms of heart failure, said Liu Xiaocheng, researcher of the clinic program and head of the hospital.

Called HeartCon, the artificial heart weighs only 180 grams and is smaller than the size of a fist. It is an outcome of long-term cooperation between the hospital and the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, the country’s leading rocket maker.

Xu Jian, chief engineer of the project, said the artificial heart works like a rocket’s servomechanism, which is driven by a hydraulic pump.A servomechanism uses feedback to control an operation.

“The servomechanism on a rocket has higher requirements of speed and power, while the artificial heart demands more focus on safety and comfort as it is small and needs to be implanted,” Xu said.

Scientists began developing the artificial heart in 2009. They used magnetic and fluid levitation, which are used in rocket servo technology, to produce an implantable third-generation ventricular assistive device, a mechanical pump to support heart functions while causing less damage to patients’ blood than previous types.

Since the artificial heart uses a blood pump and needs electrical energy to generate power, it works on external batteries. Implanting an artificial heart requires a wire, thinner than a chopstick, to pass through the patient’s belly to connect the controller and external batteries.

Animal experiments started in 2013. A sheep with the artificial heart survived 120 days. Four years later, scientists implanted the HeartCons into six sheep and set a new record as one of them survived 180 days.In March 2019, two critically ill patients who had HeartCons implanted to extend their lives, survived.

There are at least 16 million people with failing hearts in China. For patients who are in advanced stages of heart failure, transplants are the only solution. However, transplants are limited by a lack of donors and many die while waiting.

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Queen Celebrates 73rd Anniversary

The Queen of England; Queen Elizabeth II, and her husband; Duke of Edinburgh, Prince Philip, marked  their 73rd wedding anniversary by releasing a photograph of them reading a card made by their great-grandchildren, Prince George, Princess Charlotte and Prince Louis, The Guardian reports.

In perhaps a symbolic reference to their long marital union, the Queen chose to wear a chrysanthemum brooch, made from sapphires and diamonds set in platinum. She wore the same brooch in photographs taken on their honeymoon at Broadlands in Hampshire, and again in pictures taken to mark their diamond wedding in 2007.

On their golden wedding anniversary, she paid very personal tribute to Prince Philip in a speech at the Guildhall in London, in which she said: “He is someone who doesn’t take easily to compliments, but he has, quite simply, been my strength and stay all these years.”

The royal couple has spent much time apart since Philip, now 99, retired from public engagements in 2017, with him living largely on the Sandringham estate in Norfolk while she remained at Windsor Castle and Buckingham Palace. But during the pandemic lockdown, the couple have been bubbled together at Windsor Castle.

The colourful card, with a pop-out figure of 73, was one of several anniversary cards and letters sent by well-wishers to the couple, with a small pile shown on a nearby table.

The Queen, 94, was a 21-year-old princess when she married Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten on 20 November 1947. Their enduring relationship has lasted the longest of any British sovereign.

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